Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection: Causes, Symptoms, Prevention

What’s a UTI

A Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the urinary system, including your bladder and urethra. As uncomfortable as it sounds. Symptoms of a UTI often include painful urination, frequent visits to the bathroom, and urinary inconsistence.

There are three kinds of UTI:

Cystitis: This is an inflammation of the bladder and the most common UTI. Almost always, it naturally occurs majorly in women. The infection typically affects only the surface of the bladder and is brief & acute, if left untreated, the infection can ‘backtrack’ deeper into the urinary system from the bladder and reach the kidneys.

Urethritis: As the name suggests, urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra. Though commonly transmitted through sexual intercourse with partners infected with sexually transmitted infections, urethritis may also result from trauma to the area or from the catheterization process. Doctors have historically classified urethritis into two categories, gonococcal urethritis, caused by gonorrhea bacteria, and nongonococcal urethritis, caused by bacteria other than gonorrhea.

Pyelonephritis: It is a kind of infection that allows the bacteria to spread to the kidney through the bloodstream. As a filter, the kidney controls many things to keep us healthy, this infection directly affects the kidney and causes it to malfunction. This will result in immediate assistance such as Dialysis.

About 40% of women and 12% of men experience at least one symptom of UTI and visit the doctor annually. Also, if you experience two or more UTIs within a year, it is known as a recurrent UTI and should be addressed with your physician immediately.

What causes UTI:

Although the urinary system  is designed to keep bacteria out, problems can occur. Escherichia coli (E. coli) or other bacteria found in the intestines can enter the urinary tract through the urethra, they are bacteria that normally live in the colon and rectum. Once bacteria are introduced into the urethra, they multiply and travel up to the bladder. Urine flow from the bladder usually washes bacteria out of the body, women having a shorter urethra are more prone to UTI than men.

The many causes of UTI can be through,

  • Sexual intercourse
  • Use of contraceptive spermicides
  • Bad genital hygiene
  • Pregnancy
  • Diabetes
  • Cauterization

People with diabetes or a weak immune system are at high risk for such infections. Pregnant women with UTIs should meet their physicians and get treated as soon as possible. Kidney infection in a pregnant woman can be very hazardous for both the mother and the fetus

Symptoms of UTI:

UTI can be characterized into two variants depending on their symptoms:

  • Upper urinary tract infection
  • Lower urinary tract infection

Upper UTI usually infects the kidney and the tubes connecting the bladder and kidney, some of the symptoms experienced are,

  • Fever
  • Pain in the mid-back
  • Nausea
  • Blood or pus in the urine

Lower UTI affects the bladder and the urethra, Symptoms include

  • Cloudy or milky urine
  • Pain or sting while passing urine
  • Strong smelling urine
  • Abdominal pain


Lower UTI medication includes few antibiotics for a couple of days. Upper UTI calls of immediate medical assistance. Medical treatment in India  has various procedures now to deal with UTI.

UTI is common among women than in men, you may be prescribed antibiotics for self-directed use. Getting to know the early signs of infection will help a person take their antibiotics as soon as they are needed.

It is vital to work closely with the doctor and ask for further treatment if UTIs continue to recur.