Bone Marrow Transplants (BMT)
Bone Marrow Transplant is the procedure to replace the destroyed or damaged bone marrow with the healthy bone marrow stem cells. The bone marrow transplant is otherwise called as Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone marrow is soft &fatty tissues which are located inside the bones .the stem cells have ability to produce different types of blood cells such as red blood cells white blood cells and platelets .these blood cells are released into the blood streams. Bone marrow is two types yellow marrow and red marrow .in bone marrow transplantation the bone marrow way be obtained from a donor a haunted from the patient.
There are 3 main types of bone marrow transplantation
Allogeneic bone marrow transplant the term allo means “other”, the stems are removed from the donor person.in this process the donor’s gene must pasty match to the patient genes. Blood investigation are done to the lowest match for the recipient mostly patients brother or sister well be the count match to donate bone marrow or the donor who needs the bone marrow should register in the national bone marrow board to find the match.
In Autologous the term auto means “self”,the stem cells are removed from the patient before undergoing highrisk chemotherapy or radiation treatment the collected stem cells are stored in a cry operative after the radiation treatments the collected stemcells are put back in patient body to regenerate normal blood cells. This procedure is called rescue transplant.
Umbilical Cad Blood Transplantation:
This is a kind of allogeneic transplant the immature cells are removed from the new born body’s umbilical card right after her/his birth these haunted stem cells are frozen and stored until the recipient need for any transplant in future .these kind of stem cells very immature.
Before undergoing the transplant chemotherapy or radiation should be done to the patient complete history of the patient will be taken by a physical examination. Several investigations will be carried to check the normal and abnormalities of the body to accept the transplant from the donor .before starting the treatment two catheters tube will be injected into a blood vessel .in your neck and arms to receive treatment s fluids and nutrition. Complete care should be taken before the treatment.
The bone marrow transplant taken minimal time compare to other transplant. Some of the patients get treated as outpatients since it do not requires over night stay at the hospital .this will be planned according to the status & the health of the patient. Regular medications should take to overcome the infections including anti biotic antiviral need blood transfusions to the patient.
Bone marrow transplant may cause chest pain, fever, liver several pain drop in blood pressure, chills, severe headache and shortage of breath.